Banking law covers the many state and federal regulations governing financial institutions. Attorneys who practice in this area of the law handle everything from customer disputes and complaints against a bank, to complex litigation between domestic and foreign institutions, their investors, the government, and other parties. However, most banking law attorneys are hired to provide advice concerning regulatory compliance. Banks may choose to maintain in-house counsel for this purpose, or to seek assistance from an independent law firm. 

Given the vast number of regulations with which banks must comply, it is not surprising that their officers and directors seek legal counsel before making important decisions. The Dodd-Frank Act, a banking reform measure passed by the federal government in 2010, alone contains more than 1,500 separate provisions, including nearly 400 rule mandates. Depending on where they were chartered and how they operate, banking institutions may be regulated by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), the Federal Reserve System (“the Fed”), the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC), as well as state regulatory agencies.