Physical and chemical properties of water and water sources such as rain, rivers, water dams, underground water. Availability of water resources in the world. Water quality, how water is used in irrigation systems. Planning of irrigation in a given field or orchard according to seasons and plant types. Use of water tintometers and evaluation of obtained results. Evapotranspiration. Relations between water and nutrients are also given in plants. Water uptake, its transpration within plants and transpiration. General introduction to agricultural water management. Conventional methods for agricultural water management. Advanced methods for agricultural water management. Artificial intelligence irrigation systems and hybrid methods for agricultural water.  Management future challenges in agricultural water management.

Plant growth substances are quite important in development and growth processes of plants. Conventional plant hormones (phytohormones); auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscissic acid and ethylene are discussed in detail in this particular course. Meantime, recently accepted hormones which are known as new generation hormones as brassinostereods, jasminic acid and the others are also discussed. Synthetic plant growth substances which are not natural hormones are also part of this course. The effects of these synthetic ones are discussed in respect to environmental concerns well as human health. Important physiological processes including germination, rooting, enlargement of fruits, fruit thinning, fruit drop, coloring, earliness, rest and dormancy, senescence, abscission, height control are discussed. Practical works with students are also included.

This course aims to help students establish and result a scientific experiment in regard to solve a problem determined individually in their field of study and add new info

Thesis work is about determining a problem related to students´ expertise, scanning for information in literature about the subject, planning a research in order to solve the problem, and resulting the research.
rmation to the related literature.

Evoluation of fruit production techniques and methods, fruit species and cultivars, orchard designings, dynamic pomology, resistant to marketing fluctiations in developed countries in governmental and private sector levels. Importance of rootstocks and standart seedlings, their propagations and uses, importance of tissue culture techniques, dwarf fruit trees, earliness and greenhouse fruit productions. Meantime, the importance of mechanization in modern fruit culture from pruning to harvasting. Feasibility studies. Wage incentives and appotunities to investors and entrepreneurs at national and international levels for infrastructures and orchard establishments. Medium and large scala fruit production commodities. Niche production. Sustainability in fruit production, GAP and EU criterias in fruit productions. Designing modern fruit production plantations by the students.

Plant tissue culture techniques is a very important for plant propagation.

Historical background of tissue culture studies. Important expressions of the tissue cultures. Importance of chemicals used in tissue culture media and their properties. Media preparations and their constitutes. Calculation of possible modifications in media. Tissue culture stages. Selection of explants sources or mother plants and their properties. Elimination of virus and other pathogens in plants. Preventing or elimination of oxidation of possible oxidations. Use of active charcoal and ascorbic asid. Preparations of explants, sterilization, initiation, multiplications and rooting processes. Adaptation of plantlets to the greenhouse environments and open fields. Physical control of growth rooms. Designing  tissue culture laboratories, necessary equipments and their properties.  Education of personel in the lab personel.

This course is important for graduate students.

Old and new greenhouse types. Site selection criteria for greenhouses. Evaluation of the ecological conditions in respect to the greenhouse production. Different production methods of the greenhouse crop production. Soilless media preparation and aquatic systems and their uses in the greenhouse production. Nutrition, adjustment of nutrients, solution concentrations, adjustments and the factors that affect uptake of crops. Nutrient deficiencies and toxicities.Water quality, species and cultivar selections.Use of geothermal water in the greenhouse productions. CO2 and O2 applications. Greenhouse diseases, insects, physiological disorders and possible solutions. Harvesting, postharvest handling, grading, packing, storage, ripeness, effects on flavour, quality, and year-round production planning. Fruits, culinary herbs and flower productions beside tradational greenhouse vegetable crops are all in the frame of this course.

Millions of hectares of land, nearly 25% of throughout the world’s ıslands are too saline for  producing economically crop yields, and more land becomes nonproductive each year because of salt accumulation. Salinity problems in agriculture are usually confined to arid and semiarid regions where rainfall is not sufficient to transport salts from the plant root zone.The occurrence of salinity is very common many countries in the world. Salinity problems are found in all countries having areas where arid or semiarid climates exist. Soil salinity problems are present in nearly all irrigated area of the world as well. Rehabiltation of salinated lands are very difficult and time consuming. In this course all the precausion steps to prevent soil salinity and rehabilitation salinitated lands are discussed in detais.

In the first section of the course, as a feed “Silage” will be defined; advantages of silage making will be explained; importance of silage in animal feeding will be underlined. In te second part, every thing about silos (where to built, types of silos, characteristics of silos) will be detailed. The following section will cover completely main silage plants such as grasses, cereals (corn, sorghums, wheat, barley), legumes, legume x nonlegume mixtures; by products and residues (molasses, pomaces). The fourth chapter will be devoted to silage additives and presevatives (grains, molasses, bacterial preparates, acids). The next step will be on qualitative evaluation of silages in terms of sensational chemical and microbiological In the last part hylage will be introduced.