The main topics are water and pH, structure of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, proteins and nucleic acids, enzymes including mechanism of action, enzyme kinetics, regulation of enzyme activity, coenzymes, and bioenergetics. The structure of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, cell membranes, are covered as well as structures and mechanisms of action of several membrane channels, pumps and receptors. Transducing and storing energy is covered as part of introduction to metabolism. The molecular details of nucleic acid structure, DNA replication, RNA synthesis, processing and regulation, gene expression, protein synthesis, techniques in protein biochemistry will also be covered. Transcription of DNA into RNA and then translation at the ribosome are among the emphasized areas as well as protein/enzyme structure/function, macromolecule structures.