General concepts of systems. Discrete and continuous systems. Modelling and simulation of systems. Concept of a state and state vari­ables. Event driven systems and event scheduling. Physical, analytical and simulation modelling techniques. General structure of a discrete-event simulation system. Probabilistic aspects of simulation. Simulation languages and software. Statistical models in simulation. Random number and random variate generation techniques. Queu­ing models and their use in simulation. Verification and validation of simulation models. Input modelling. Results collection. Output (statistical) analysis and representation of simulation results. Applications of simulation.