Pyrogen and control methods, water purification (FILTRATION) ion exchange, reverse osmosis, distillation, heat transfer, water for injection free from dissolved gas, CO2 free water is the main subjects which will be discussed in this course.

Routes of administration, the solvent used for parenteral dosage forms will be covered. Besides, the hardness of water, types of water, water purification methods, distillation, as well as heat transfer, pyrogen tests, storage of water, CIP and SIP, formulation of injectable dosage forms, visual inspection and automatic inspection systems; mixing vessels, types of stirrers, isotonicity, dialysis solutions, filtration, sterilization, containers consisting of glass and plastic; closures, washing of containers and closures; filling of ampules, HVAC system, environmental cleanliness  will be widely discussed in this lecture.